The Big Bang Theory
It’s hard to comprehend how dense a star becomes when it collapses into a black hole. For the earth to collapse into a black hole, it would have to be as small as a golf ball with no change in its mass. 13.8 billion years ago, the whole universe was way smaller than a golf ball. The energy of that point was unimaginable.
The period from 0 to 10 −43 seconds into the expansion is known as the Planck epoch, a phase in which the four fundamental forces — the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force, were unified as one. Due to the immense energy, no particles could exist, so it was pure energy. As the temperature of the universe fell, at approximately 10 −37 seconds into the expansion, a phase transition (change in state, for example, solid-to-liquid) caused a cosmic inflation, during which the universe grew exponentially, faster than the speed of light, and the temperature dropped by a factor of 100,000. As most of you would know, matter and energy can neither get created nor destroyed. It can only change from one form to the other. Thus, this release of heat energy was accompanied by the creation of the elemental particles (Matter and Ant-Matter). At about 10 −6 seconds, quarks and gluons combined to form baryons such as the protons and neutrons which we find in atoms.
About 4.5 billion years ago, our solar system formed from a dense cloud of interstellar gas and dust. This dust cloud collapsed, forming a spinning disk of material known as a ‘solar nebula’. At the centre of this disk, gravity pulled more and more material in. Eventually, the pressure in the core was so strong that hydrogen (Atomic No. – 1) atoms began to combine and form helium (Atomic No. – 2), releasing a tremendous amount of energy. With that, our Sun was born. Matter farther out in the disk also started clumping together. These clumps smashed into one another, forming larger and larger objects. Some of them grew big enough for their gravity to shape them into spheres, forming planets, dwarf planets and large moons. Other smaller leftover pieces did not have enough mass so their gravitational forces were weak. They became asteroids, comets, meteoroids, and small, irregular moons. The universe is still expanding to this day at a rate given by the Hubble constant (46,200 mph per million light-years). The Big Bang Theory has given us so much information about the birth of our universe. Yet, several questions regarding dark matter and the multiverse theory remain unanswered.